How to optimize the landscape map?

更新时间:2021-02-24 11:14:33点击:9829 Industry Views

Before we start, bring two sets of pictures:

Figure 1 The first type of building positioning arrangement-due south and north
Figure 2 The second type of building positioning arrangement-30° turn from south to west

The two main landscape axes formed after the 30° turn-Jiuzhangtai

In the early design stage of Hangzhou Sunac Jiuzhangtai project, in order to integrate the fragmented house space and highlight the value of landscape products, it created the north-south central axis landscape through a clever 30° turn. In 19 years, the delivery of Jiuzhangtai has also been widely recognized in the industry.

This leads to the topic of this sharing: how landscape architects can reasonably play the role of participants in the pre-architectural planning and design stage.

Since landscape design cannot be fully involved in the initial design of architectural planning and design, landscape architects at this stage need to make predictive suggestions for architectural planning and design from a professional perspective. We usually consider the following aspects:
1. Whether the volume, height, and location of the building are not conducive to future landscape planning, and whether it is not conducive to the formation of a good local microclimate;
2. Whether the road layout is not conducive to the future landscape layout, whether there are conditions to create (1/2) landscape central axis, whether it is conducive to the formation of a concentrated landscape group;
3. Whether the vertical elevation design is reasonable;
4. Whether the greening index conflicts with the setting of multifunctional space in the park (projects with an area of less than 10,000 square meters need to be paid attention to).

The following are respectively analyzed from 7 aspects

What landscape architects can do during the optimization stage of the master plan:

Get a general plan. In addition to paying attention to the fire exits and fire-fighting elevations, motor and non-motor vehicle entrances and exits, supporting rooms and equipment rooms, and whether the arrangement of parking spaces for motor vehicles and non-motor vehicles is proper, you also Need to pay attention to the layout of the site, the treatment of structural elevation, whether the movement of the overhead space is reasonable, and so on.


"Fire exit and fire climbing surface"

common problem:
1. The lines of the fire exit are too stiff/too wide
2. The fire exit is too close to the building
3. The fire passage or climbing surface makes the landscape space discontinuous

4. The location of the fire return yard or the climbing surface is unreasonable, occupying the central landscape/affecting the entrance landscape

In this regard, we need to prescribe the right medicine and find the way to optimize it. But before that, the editor believes that we need to fully understand the relevant design specifications, so that there are laws to follow.

The editor extracts from the document "Code for Fire Protection in Building Design GB 50016-2014 (2018 Edition)":
The fire passage should meet the following requirements:
1. The clear width and clear height of the lane should not be less than 4.0m;
2. The distance between the edge of the fire lane and the outer wall of the building should not be less than 5m;
3. The slope of the fire lane should not be greater than 8%;
4. At least two circular fire lanes should be connected to other lanes. The end-type fire lane should be provided with a return lane or a return yard, and the area of the return yard shall not be less than 12m✖12m; for high-rise buildings, it should not be less than 15m✖15m.

The fire climbing surface shall meet the following requirements:
1. The length and width of the fire climbing site should not be less than 15m and 10m respectively. For buildings with a building height greater than 50m, the length and width of the site shall not be less than 20m and 10m respectively;
2. The site should be connected to the fire lane. The edge of the site on the side of the building's outer wall should not be less than 5m from the building's outer wall, and should not be greater than 10m, and the slope of the site should not be greater than 3%.

Note: Fire protection regulations must be implemented in accordance with local regulations.

The following is a simple analysis from several actual cases:

1/Straight line changes to curve, creating a polygonal landscape space

Optimization content:
Connect the fire passages and cancel the original fire return yard to ensure that the road is closed while leaving design space for the landscape.
Adjust the location of ground parking spaces to ensure that there are no parking spaces in the central landscape area.

Optimization content:
Adjust the size and position of the fire-fighting elevation surface at the secondary entrance of the community, and give the entrance landscape design space.
Partially move the location of fire-fighting passages to break the original rigid and long fire-fighting passages and increase the richness of the landscape space.

2/ Two changes into one, creating a better centralized space

Optimization content:
The two original fire passages are merged into one, leaving a better outdoor space for landscape.

3/ Adjust the width under the design specification

Optimization content:
The width of the fire lane was originally designed to be 6 meters, but it can be adjusted to 4 meters according to the specification.
Optimize the linear shape of the turning radius to better integrate with the outdoor space.
The turn of the lane is closer to the building, so move it out appropriately.

For the landscape optimization treatment of the fire climbing surface, landscape architects can often start from the following aspects:

1/ Combine the fire climbing surface, the carriage return field and the children's activity venue. Although there is no equipment on the ground, interesting patterns on the ground can be used to enhance the fun of the venue through educational activities such as learning trails, jumping grids, and letter recognition Sex. Set up rest seats in areas other than the climbing surface.

Landscape treatment of fire climbing surface

2/ Combine the fire-fighting climbing surface and the carriage return area with the exclusive activity venues for the elderly, and set up a dot-matrix pavement Tai Chi venue for the elderly to move freely.
3/ Integrate the fire climbing surface with outdoor seats, movable flower boxes, etc., fully consider the humanized site design, and embed the concept of outdoor living room.
4/Using different paving materials, combining different patterns and shapes, using different texture changes, treat it as an ornamental space.

Landscape treatment of fire climbing surface

"Entrance and exit for motor vehicles and non-motor vehicles"

common problem:
1. The entrance of non-motor vehicles is in the park. Is it possible to adjust the position of the entrance and exit of non-motor vehicles outside the park gate to facilitate the management of the diversion of people and vehicles?
2. The traffic flow is not smooth and unreasonable

case study:

1/Optimized positioning of motor vehicle entrances and exits

Optimization content:
The entrance of the carriageway is close to the empty carriage return field, which is not conducive to the construction of the entrance of the carriageway, so the entrance of the carriageway is moved to the north.

2/Optimized adjustment of the direction of entrance and exit of motor vehicles

Optimization content:
The entrance and exit of the motorized garage at the south entrance are adjusted from diagonal to north-south to optimize the spatial layout and traffic flow of the south entrance.

"Optimization of the location of supporting houses"

Common supporting houses include:
Gas pressure regulating station, garbage room/garbage centralized collection point, ground distribution room, distribution box, opening and closing station, public toilet, etc.
It can be optimized by moving it to a secondary area so that it does not affect the landscape and adjusting its location to facilitate sheltering by plants or moving underground.

case study:

1/Adjust the location, conceal the greenery / move to the underground / move to the secondary area

Optimization content:
Move the distribution box to the secondary area to ensure the integrity of the landscape around the main road area, and carry out appropriate concealment treatment through greening.

"Structural Elevation Review"

When there are multiple types of business in the same block, the structural elevation may be inconsistent, including commercial podiums and connected residences, high-rise and western-style houses, and high-rise and row houses.
Designers should consider whether they need to be optimized and adjusted in terms of product value and compatibility with the landscape. For example, whether commercial podiums connected to municipal roads need to be adjusted in structural elevation to avoid large elevation differences with municipal road elevations.

"Arrangement of parking spaces for motor vehicles and non-motor vehicles"

Regarding the problem of the unreasonable arrangement of parking spaces in the planning, under the condition of meeting the specifications, the parking spaces can be re-arranged to make them tidy to form a composite landscape space, which will benefit the creation of the park effect.

case study:

1/Plan a parking space near the main entrance and move it to the edge to realize the diversion of people and vehicles at the main entrance

Optimization content:
The 6 parking spaces planned in the main entrance block of the pedestrian walkway will be moved to both sides of the asphalt road on the north side of the project, and pedestrians and vehicles will be separated at the main entrance.

2/ The arrangement of parking spaces is unreasonable, and the rearrangement makes it a composite landscape space, which is conducive to the creation of landscape

Optimization content:
The number of parking spaces on the ground remains unchanged. Through the optimization of the arrangement, the parking function is preserved, and its form is combined with the event venue to form a composite landscape space.

3/ Shorten the flow of vehicles to reduce the impact of traffic noise in the park

Optimization content:
Modify the location of parking spaces, shorten the flow of vehicles, and reduce the impact of vehicle driving on the traffic noise inside the park.

"Optimization of the flow of the functional space of the overhead floor"

For parks with functional overhead floors such as supporting homing space, in the early stage of the plan, it is necessary to conduct a full-professional circle and sort out the rationality of the movement lines of homing space and the precise positioning of the space, including: effective distinction If there is a need to increase the setting of the heartbeat line and the return line, the addition of the entrance road and the entrance canopy needs to be considered simultaneously.

Separate the overhead line from the home line, and use different paving forms

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